Week of November 9, 2009

Beyond the Great Lakes
Misc New Fishing-Boating Products
Hunting & Shooting Products/Issues
National

Regional

Canada
Indiana
Michigan
Ohio
Wisconsin
Ontario
Other Breaking News Items

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Barb-tailed shrimp found in Ohio harbor
A small barb-tailed shrimp that is not native to the Great Lakes has been found in Ashtabula Harbor

 

Work  under way on Muskegon Lake shoreline restoration
Design and  engineering is well under way and construction could begin by the end of the  year on a $10 million National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration grant to  restore the shoreline habitat along the southern Muskegon Lake  shoreline.

 

COMMENTARY: Will ocean task force benefit Lake Erie and Northeast Ohio? Maybe
The Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force public meeting held in Cleveland last week focused on the need for an ecosystem-based management policy.

 

Carp barrier maintenance not just Corps' problem, official says
Lack of funds for carp barrier maintenance has the people who are fighting to keep the fish from invading the Great Lakes at wits' end.

 

DNR rule would reverse presumption of openness on public lands
he Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is moving ahead with a proposed rule that would allow the department and private conservancy organizations to prohibit certain outdoor recreational activities on state Stewardship lands without the approval of the Natural Resources Board - a policy that seemingly conflicts with state law.

 

President Obama quietly signs landmark Great Lakes clean-up bill
Without fanfare, President Barack Obama has OK'd a large cash infusion to help clean up the Great Lakes, quietly signing a bill that was years in the making and marks a rare bipartisan milestone.

 

Future of Erie walleye fishing a mixed bag

Each year the biologists who work at Lake Erie wait until fall to see what Mother Nature has provided.

So much rides on how the walleye and perch hatches turn out each season. Will they be as great as the record 2003 hatch? Will they be as bad as the 2002 hatch?

 

Robot fish could monitor water quality

An engineer and an ecologist at Michigan State University are developing robots that swim like fish to monitor water quality. 

 

Freedom of the Press
The Senate should pass the federal shield law to protect reporters and ensure that Americans get the information they need about the instituti
ons that affect their lives

 

15,000 reasons to worry about state's lakes
No invasive species has wreaked more damage than zebra mussels, which feast on Great Lakes plankton and have cost the region billions of dollars in starved fish populations, beach-trashing algae blooms and plugged industrial and municipal water intake pipes.

New insights into pesticide for invasives
Great Lakes officials are trying to beat back the voracious Asian carp at the gates of Lake Michigan, while still wrangling with another nasty invader that snuck in at least 90 years ago: sea lampreys.

The future of America's Great Lakes is cloudy
The Great Lakes, source of water and one of the world's largest navigable bodies of water, are facing a triple threat.

 

Future of Erie walleye fishing a mixed bag
The economy of the Lake Erie region has strong ties to the fishing industry, especially sport fishing. When there are fewer walleyes to be caught, all business is affected. When walleyes are plentiful, business booms.

 

White House panel visits Great Lakes
The Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force, which President Barack Obama established in June, convened the last of six regional public meetings Thursday in Cleveland. It is the only gathering devoted specifically to the Great Lakes.

 

Great Lakes restoration funding is just one wave, lawmakers say
A $475 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is just one part of an appropriations bill that recently passed through Congress.

 

 

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Fishing beyond the Great Lakes

Giant Jellyfish Sink 10-Ton Fishing Boat

A 10-ton fishing boat has been sunk by gigantic jellyfish off eastern Japan. The crew of the fishing boat was thrown into the sea when the vessel capsized, but the three men were rescued by another trawler.

 

The trawler, called the Diasan Shinsho-maru, capsized as its three-man crew was trying to haul in a net containing dozens of huge Nomura's jellyfish. Each of the jellyfish can weigh up to 200 kg (about 440 lbs) and waters around Japan have been inundated with the creatures this year. Experts believe weather and water conditions in the breeding grounds, off the coast of China, have been ideal for the jellyfish in recent months.

One of the largest jellyfish in the world, the species can grow up to 2 meters (about 6.5 feet) in diameter. The last time Japan was invaded on a similar scale, in the summer of 2005, the jellyfish damaged nets, rendered fish inedible with their toxic stings and even caused injuries to fishermen.

 

Relatively little is known about Nomura's jellyfish, such as why some years see thousands of the creatures floating across the Sea of Japan on the Tsushima Current, but last year there were virtually no sightings. In 2007, there were 15,500 reports of damage to fishing equipment caused by the creatures.

 

Experts believe that one contributing factor to the jellyfish becoming more frequent visitors to Japanese waters may be a decline in the number of predators, which include sea turtles and certain species of fish.


Trapper who faked Python Capture arrested, charged

TAMPA, FL - A Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission investigation into the staged capture of a 14' long Burmese python has resulted in charges against the professional nuisance-animal trapper who perpetrated the public hoax. FWC Investigator James Manson arrested Justin

Matthews, 47, of Bradenton, Florida, a well-known wildlife expert and owner of Matthews Wildlife Rescue. Matthews is charged with misusing a 911 emergency system, third-degree felony, and a second-degree misdemeanor violation of maintaining captive wildlife in an unsafe manner resulting in threats to the public safety.


Hunting & Shooting Products/Issues

Henry Repeating Arms Releases Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute Edition

From the beaches of Normandy, the snowfall of Korea and the jungles of Vietnam to the sands of Iraq and the mountains of Afghanistan, America's servicemen and servicewomen have led the charge in the fight to preserve freedom around the world. To honor those heroic marines, soldiers, sailors and airmen who sacrificed their lives in service to our country and to show our appreciation to all who answer the call of duty to preserve our liberty, we are proud to offer this commemorative Henry Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute Edition of our legendary Golden Boy rifle.

 

A portion of the proceeds from the sale of each Henry Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute Edition will be donated to the American Legion, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Wounded Warrior Project and the Fisher House for military families.

 

Since the Civil War it has been an enduring American tradition to present ornately engraved Henry rifles to servicemen as a token of gratitude for their sacrifices. The Henry Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute Edition is ideal for continuing that time-honored practice. Proudly crafted in America, this heirloom-quality rifle has a polished nickel-plated receiver adorned with deeply etched, patriotically themed scrollwork. The right side features intricate scrollwork and the American bald eagle as well as a shield bearing the inscription "In Recognition of Military Service to Our Great Country."

 

The left side showcases two enduring symbols of American

 

freedom: The Statue of Liberty and The Liberty Bell. The images on both sides, as well as the laurel leaf border, are selectively plated with 24-karat gold. Five stars representing the five branches of service are cut into each side of the receiver separating the front and rear panels. The Stars and Stripes and a golden banner with the words "God Bless America" are laser etched into the American walnut stock and hand painted in brilliant red, white and blue. The seals of the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and Coast Guard are inscribed into the right side of the forearm and hand painted with gold fill. If you know of a serviceman or woman who has just returned from overseas, or one who served in a past conflict, honor them with one of these limited-edition rifles.

 

A portion of the proceeds from the sale of each Henry Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute Edition will be donated to the American Legion, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Wounded Warrior Project and the Fisher House for military families. Whether purchasing to present to those who have served, or for use in any fund raising effort, or simply to own and proudly display this beautiful and historic collectible, you will be making a contribution to America's most worthwhile veterans' organizations.

 

The Henry Golden Boy "Military Service" Tribute rifle is only available through authorized Henry dealers. For a copy of the Henry Repeating Arms catalog and a printout of a list of dealers, go to: www.henryrifles.com  or call toll free 866-200-2364.


Bond Arms Introduces New Snake Slayer IV

With their Snake Slayer, Snake Slayer IV, Texas Defender, Cowboy Defender and Ranger models and interchangeable barrels enabling shooters to choose from any of twenty-three different calibers, Bond Arms suggests personal defense shoppers consider their derringers for their personal carry needs.  

 

These easily concealed pistols are still popular today. Though poker disputes are resolved in a more gentlemanly fashion now, threats from rattlesnakes and vipers of the human kind are still very real. Plus, they're popular among the cowboy action shooting set. But gone are the days of inferior workmanship and materials as well as the need to buy a matching pair of derringers to compensate for their single-shot capabilities. Bond Arms of Granbury, Texas, has replaced the subpar imitations of old with quality built, double-barrel protection. Though Bond Arms derringers are inspired by historical designs, they are built like a tank and can handle big calibers.

 

Made of stainless steel, Bond's classic firearms include modern safety features. For example, old style derringers could fire if dropped on the hammer. However, Bond derringers have a hammer that automatically rebounds to a blocked position meaning the only way you can fire one is fully cocking the hammer and squeezing the trigger. Plus a crossbolt safety blocks the hammer from contact with the firing pins.

Bond Arms also are reliable and easy to use. All it takes is one hand to click a side lever, swing the gun open to load and flip it back to its locked position. Though light enough to be easily carried, they have enough heft to manage any recoil. Plus, an extended grip allows the shooter to wrap a third finger around the grip, which makes for great feel and manageability. The trigger pull can be described as clean and neither too light nor too heavy at between 6 and 7 ½ pounds of pressure.

 

Their most popular models, including the Snake Slayer, Snake Slayer IV, Texas Defender, Cowboy Defender and Ranger, are petite pistols that can pack a big wallop. But what might be even cooler is the fact they have multiple personalities. Bond offers 15 interchangeable barrels for their guns, which gives shooters 23 different caliber combinations including popular choices such as .410 shot shells or .45 Colt cartridges. Changing the barrels is a snap, too. A standard Allen wrench and about a minute will allow you to remove the hinge screw so you can change out the barrel.

 

Bond Arms, which has been manufacturing derringer style firearms in America since 1995 are trusted firearms for personal, close-range protection and are the gun of choice for cowboy action shooters. Bond Arm derringers have been the Single Action Shooting Society (SASS) World Champions for 10 years in a row now.

 

In addition to a full line of derringers, Bond Arms also offers a variety of custom grips, holsters and other accessories.

To see the entire line Bond Arms guns and accessories, go to: www.bondarms.com  or call 817-573-4445.

 


Glock Introduces G19 and G23 RTF Pistols

Glock has introduced a pair of new Rough Textured Frame (RTF2) pistols, the Model 19 in 9x19 and the G23 in .40 caliber. The pistols were rolled out at the National Association of Sporting Goods Wholesalers (NASGW) in Reno, Nevada.

 

The RTF2 finish was developed after direct feedback from the United States Special Operations community. There are many instances where the environment offers difficult to manage wet and humid conditions. In order to continue providing cutting edge solutions, GLOCK developed the RTF2. The newly designed frame incorporates hundred of "polymids," or miniature spikes on the front, rear, and sides of the grip resulting in a definite increase in traction.

 

"GLOCK has heard its valued customers. GLOCK knows it must continue to evolve in order to remain relevant in future markets. These new pistols demonstrate that fact," commented GLOCK, Inc. Vice President Josh Dorsey.

 

"Additionally, GLOCK will introduce the "next generation" of

GLOCK Pistols incorporating our customer's demands at the upcoming SHOT Show; come visit us at the GLOCK booth."

 

The G19 and G23 are two of the most popular GLOCK models. The G19 9x19 compact is widely used all over the world. In addition, the G23 in .40 caliber is quite popular with both law enforcement and private individuals as a back up or concealed carry firearm. Adding the RTF2 finish to these compact models increases the options for law abiding individuals and organizations. Along with the new RTF2 finish, each of these GLOCK pistols have the same time tested "Safe Action" system, durable exterior finish, cold hammer forged barrel, durability, reliability, and light weight that GLOCK is famous for.


Beretta Unveils New A400 Xplor Unico Shotgun 

Beretta has unveiled the A400 Xplor Unico - a semiautomatic shotgun that features cutting-edge technologies and the world's most advanced performance and engineering solutions all designed for exceptional performance.

 

The 3½" 12 gauge Beretta Xplor uses proprietary technology that enables it to shoot all types of 12 gauge shells with uncompromised performance, yet it weighs one pound less than other 3½" 12 gauge shotguns. The A400 Xplor is like a 3" semiautomatic that fires 3½" shells- and it is the cleanest, lightest, fastest and most versatile 12 gauge semiautomatic shotgun on the market today.

 

The A400 Xplor integrates the following exclusive technologies setting new standards in the field of 12 gauge semiautomatics:

► Unico, Exclusive technology providing uncompromised performance, with every type of 12 gauge shell (24g - 64g, 2¾" - 3½" shells)

 

► Kick-off3, World's best recoil reduction (up to 70% less recoil) A third hydraulic damper added inside the stock bolt further reduces recoil and mechanical stress

► Blink, The world's fastest gas operating system (36% faster) is also the cleanest. A new piston elastic band cleans the internal part of the cylinder and prevents gas from exiting the valve, while the new seal system allows half the gas inside compared to older gas operated models.

► Steelium, The best barrels in the world, these are made from steel meeting exclusive Beretta specifications and forging process.

► Green Receiver, Functional and elegant. The anodization process is the best corrosion resistant treatment for the aluminum receiver. Beretta has developed new technology that allows for new colors without compromising the corrosion resistance properties of the process.

 

Go to www.berettausa.com  to see this new 12 gauge semiautomatic shotgun from Beretta, the A400 Xplor Unico.

 


Streamlight Launches Stinger LED HP, Stinger Ds LED HP

New Models of Popular Rechargeable Lights Offer Extraordinary Brightness

New Models of Popular Rechargeable Lights Offer Extraordinary Brightness

Streamlight has introduced the Stinger LED HP and Stinger DS LED HP rechargeable flashlights, providing hunters, hikers, campers and other outdoor enthusiasts with extraordinary brightness and versatility with C4 LED technology, three intensity levels and a popular strobe feature.

 

“Streamlight’s new Stinger LED HP and Stinger DS LED HP advance these two popular lights to among the brightest lights Streamlight offers, making them ideal for outdoor users who need extremely bright light under darkened conditions, such as when on the trail or around the  campsite at night,” said Streamlight Chief Operating Officer Ray Sharrah. “The combination of rechargeable batteries, C4 technology and Streamlight engineering provides over 200% more intensity than the Stinger LED and Stinger DS LED, and also results in extremely low operating costs.”

 

Both lights offer 48,000 candela peak beam intensity and 200 lumens of measured system output in the high level; 24,000 candela peak beam intensity and 100 lumens in the medium

 

setting; and 11,000 candela peak beam intensity and 50

lumens in the low setting. The light’s deep-dish parabolic reflector produces a long-range targeting beam with optimum peripheral illumination to aid in navigation.

 

The new models also offer long runtimes. At the high level, the lights operate for two continuous hours to the 10% output level, 3.75 continuous hours at medium brightness, and 7.25 hours at low brightness. The strobe runs up to 5.50 continuous hours.

The lights are constructed of machined 6000-series aircraft aluminum and feature a non-slip rubberized comfort grip. The Stinger LED HP, which measures 9.23" in length and weighs 13.6 oz, offers a multi-function, head-mounted pushbutton switch. The Stinger DS LED HP, which measures 9.65" in length and weighs 14 oz, features innovative Dual-Switch technology, providing a second multi-function, pushbutton tactical tail switch for full-feature control, independent of the other switch.

 

Both lights are powered by 3-cell, 3.6 volt nickel-cadmium sub-C batteries, which are rechargeable up to 1,000 times. The Stinger LED HP and Stinger DS LED HP both fit existing Stinger chargers. The steady charger fully recharges in 10 hours on 100V, 120V, 230V, 240VAC, or 12VDC.  Also available is a 2 ½-hour fast charger or PiggyBack charger.

 

Both the Stinger LED HP and Stinger DS LED HP are backed by Streamlight’s limited lifetime warranty. The suggested retail price for the Stinger LED HP is $209.00; the Stinger DS LED HP suggested retail price is $224.00.


Ohio Youth Deer-Gun Season November 21-22

Ohio's youth deer-gun hunting season will be held Saturday and Sunday, November 21-22. Last year, young hunters harvested 9,852 deer during the two-day season.  "The youth deer-gun hunting season provides young hunters the chance to experience the challenge of hunting and enjoy the outdoors with their families," said David M. Graham, chief of the division.

 

Hunters can share photos of their success in the field online by visiting www.wildohio.com and clicking on Photo Gallery. The photo submission process is easy and posted photos may be e-mailed to a friend.

 

The youth deer-gun season is open statewide to hunters 17 years old and younger. Hunters may take one deer of either sex during this season, in accordance with existing bag and deer-zone limits. Plugged shotguns, muzzleloaders, handguns and bows are legal. All participants must wear hunter orange, possess a valid Ohio hunting license and a $12 youth-deer permit, and must be accompanied by a non-hunting adult in the field.

 

All other regularly scheduled hunting seasons will continue

 

during the two-day youth season. However, other hunters, including deer-archery hunters, are required to wear hunter orange during this period.

 

This year, Ohio's deer-gun season runs November 30 through December 6, and the weekend of December 19-20. Details regarding Ohio's various hunting seasons, including those exclusively for young hunters, can be found in the 2009-10 Ohio Hunting Regulations or by visiting www.wildohio.com

 

Youth hunters that want to donate venison to the needy can do so at no cost. The Division of Wildlife is collaborating with Farmers and Hunters Feeding the Hungry to help pay for the processing of donated venison. All hunters who donate their deer to a food bank are not required to pay the processing cost as long as funding for the effort lasts. More information about this program can be found online at www.fhfh.org.

 

The 2009-2010 licenses will not be printed on weatherproof paper. Sportsmen and women should protect their licenses and permits from the elements by carrying them in a protective pouch or wallet.


Indiana hunters to take aim at healthy deer population

Indiana’s annual firearms season for white-tailed deer opens Nov. 14. During the 16-day season, which ends Nov. 29, hunters are expected to kill an estimated 86,000 deer.

“In 2008, hunters killed 86,454 deer during firearms season. I expect the numbers from 2009 to reflect a similar total,” said Chad Stewart, Indiana DNR deer biologist.

This year marks the 75th anniversary of Indiana DNR's Division of Fish and Wildlife white-tailed deer reintroduction project. The opportunity to hunt white-tailed deer in Indiana represents a major success in wildlife restoration. Indiana’s '08 antlered deer harvest (50,845) was a 3 % increase over 49,375 harvested in '07. The antlerless harvest of ’08 (78,903) also increased over the 76,052 in '07.

 

Deer hunters harvested 129,748 Indiana deer during the '08 season, over 5,000 more than the 124,427 deer harvested during the '07 season. Although the overall deer harvest for the last three years has averaged around 126,500, Stewart said, “2009 may mark the first year hunters kill more than 130,000 deer in Indiana. It’s only 252 more deer than last season.”

 

The combined '08 archery seasons yielded 26,921 deer. Muzzleloader rifle season hunters killed 15,154 deer. Firearms hunters killed 86,454 deer, 66.6 percent of the entire '08 harvest.

 

Hunters killed 17,418 deer on opening day of firearms season in ’08 and 13,746 on the second day. Opening weekend accounted for 36 percent of the total deer killed during firearms season. According to DNR wildlife chief, Wayne Bivans, this year’s opening weekend should be just as successful.

 

“Indiana’s deer haven’t experienced any serious threats this year. The weather has been fine, and we haven’t seen much disease. The overall deer population is healthy and thriving. I believe there is every reason to expect hunters to experience a successful opening weekend,” Bivans said.

 

The number of deer harvested in individual counties last year ranged from a low of 130 deer in Tipton County to 3,672 deer in Steuben County. Harvest exceeded 1,000 deer in 61 counties; exceeded 2,000 deer in 16 of those counties; and exceeded 3,000 deer in four of those counties.


Army to open Competition for Carbine

The U.S. Army has requested $9.9 million from Congress to start the solicitation process for a firearms competition as part of their consideration of acquiring a new carbine, Army Times reports. Currently, the Army's primary firearm for soldiers is the

 

M4. The first round of testing will likely begin late next summer and last though summer 2011 and draw dozens of small arms manufacturers. The M4 is a modified M16, the military version of the AR 15.


Ruger captures Coveted Manufacturer of the Year Award

Ruger has been presented with the "Firearms Manufacturer of the Year" award by the National Association of Sporting Goods Wholesalers for the third consecutive year. The award was presented during the Association's 36th Annual Meeting in

 

Reno, Nevada. In order to choose the best of the best, NASGW wholesaler members evaluated the performance of top manufacturers on four key criteria – distribution policy; marketing, sales and promotion; logistics and operations; and industry support.


Misc New Fishing-Boating Products

Pure Fishing and Dyneema Sign Strategic Agreement

Partnership to further drive innovation and advancements in premium fishing lines made with Dyneema

URMOND (NL), SPIRIT LAKE (USA) – 5 November 2009 - Dyneema and Pure Fishing announced the signing of a new global strategic agreement that will strengthen and increase their joint commitment to the research and development, marketing and sales of high performance fishing lines made with Dyneema.

 

The partnership will lead to developing premium fishing lines that meet and exceed the most demanding performance expectations in strength and abrasion resistance. Pure Fishing lines made with Dyneema provide exclusive solutions to experienced anglers.

Pure Fishing lines made with Dyneema offer unsurpassed performance. Besides its unparallel strength, the lines are also extremely thin making them near invisible to fish while also increasing the reel’s line capacity. In addition, the lines provide low stretch, allowing fishermen to instantly ‘feel the fish bite’.

 

“We work hard to ensure we can provide our customers with products they can trust. Our customers can expect from us best-in-class Superline products designed to incorporate abrasion resistance, outstanding line-sensitivity and most importantly unmatched strength provided by Dyneema,” said Clay Norris, Senior Product Manager, Pure Fishing. “This is why we believe DSM Dyneema is an ideal partner with a proven performance track record for us to team with. Put simply, the world’s best fishing lines deserve Dyneema, the world’s strongest fiber.”

 

“Continuous product innovation and strategic collaboration with partners who are leaders in their field are two of the core pillars of our business model,” said Marcel Alberts, Global Sports Marketing Manager, DSM Dyneema. “We are really pleased in joining forces with Pure Fishing and are confident it will lead to even higher performing fishing lines that will continue to delight the more discerning angler who demands more from his equipment.

 

About DSM Dyneema

DSM Dyneema is the inventor and manufacturer of Dyneema, the world’s strongest fiber. Dyneema is an ultra strong polyethylene fiber that offers maximum strength combined with minimum weight. It is up to 15 times stronger than quality steel and up to 40% stronger than Aramid fibers, both on weight for weight basis. Dyneema floats on water and is extremely durable and resistant to moisture, UV light and chemicals. The applications are therefore more or less unlimited. Dyneema is an important component in ropes, cables and nets in the fishing, shipping and offshore industries. Dyneema is also used in safety gloves for the metalworking industry and in fine yarns for applications in sporting goods and the medical sector. In addition, Dyneema is also used in bullet resistant armor and clothing for police and military personnel. Dyneema is produced in The Netherlands and in Greenville, North Carolina. DSM Dyneema is also a partner in a high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) manufacturing joint venture in Japan. Further information on DSM Dyneema is available at www.dyneema.com and www.feelthefishbite.com.

 


President Signs Switchblade Act Amendment into Law

President Obama has signed into law the FY 2010 Homeland Security Appropriations Bill that includes a new exception to the Federal Switchblade Act protecting our assisted and one-

hand opening pocket knives. All assisted opening knives are excluded from prohibition by the 1958 Federal Switchblade Act. Obama signed an amendment to the Act late Wednesday, Oct. 28


National

Senate Bill gives Obama Authority to Pull the Plug on Your Internet

CNET News has obtained a summary of a proposal from Senators Jay Rockefeller (D-WV) and Olympia Snowe (R-Maine) that would create an Office of the National Cybersecurity Advisor, part of the Executive Office of the President. That office would receive the power to disconnect, if it believes they're at risk of a cyberattack, "critical" computer networks from the Internet.

 

“I regard this as a profoundly and deeply troubling problem to which we are not paying much attention," Rockefeller said at a

 

hearing, referring to cybersecurity.  Senate bill 773 (The

Cybersecurity Act of 2009) is causing a flurry of opposition from groups like Campaign for Liberty, which has sent out  letters to their members appealing for them to take action against passage of this bill, stating:

 

“If the ‘Internet Takeover Bill’ passes, Barack Obama can silence his dissenters directly -- by ordering a shutdown of all Americans’ access to the Internet. But that’s not all. Even outside of periods of White House-declared ‘emergency,’ this bill mandates that private-sector networks only be managed by government-licensed cybersecurity professionals.”


President Signs Switchblade Act Amendment into Law

President Obama has signed into law the FY 2010 Homeland Security Appropriations Bill that includes a new exception to the Federal Switchblade Act protecting our assisted and one-

 

hand opening pocket knives. All assisted opening knives are excluded from prohibition by the 1958 Federal Switchblade Act. Obama signed an amendment to the Act late Wednesday, Oct. 28


Pesticide Levels Decline in Corn Belt Rivers

Concentrations of several major pesticides mostly declined or stayed the same in “Corn Belt” rivers and streams from 1996 to 2006, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey study.

 

The declines in pesticide concentrations closely followed declines in their annual applications, indicating that reducing pesticide use is an effective and reliable strategy for reducing pesticide contamination in streams.

 

Declines in concentrations of the agricultural herbicides cyanazine, alachlor and metolachlor show the effectiveness of USEPA regulatory actions as well as the influence of new pesticide products. In addition, declines from 2000 to 2006 in concentrations of the insecticide diazinon correspond to the EPA’s national phase-out of nonagricultural uses.

 

Scientists studied 11 herbicides and insecticides frequently detected in the Corn Belt region, which generally includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska and Ohio, as well as parts of adjoining states. This area has among the highest pesticide use in the nation — mostly herbicides used for weed control in corn and soybeans. As a result, these pesticides are widespread in the region’s streams and rivers, largely resulting from runoff from cropland and urban areas.

 

Elevated concentrations can affect aquatic organisms in streams as well as the quality of drinking water in some high-use areas where surface water is used for municipal supply. Four of the 11 pesticides evaluated for trends were among those most often found in previous USGS studies to occur at levels of potential concern for healthy aquatic life. Atrazine, the most frequently detected, is also regulated in drinking water.

Only one pesticide — simazine, which is used for both agricultural and urban weed control — increased from 1996 to 2006. Concentrations of simazine in some streams increased more sharply than its trend in agricultural use, suggesting that non-agricultural uses of this herbicide, such as for controlling weeds in residential areas and along roadsides, increased during the study period.

 

The USGS study is based on analysis of 11 pesticides for 31 stream sites in the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996 to 2002 and 2000 to 2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were the herbicides Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin and prometon, and the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Additional detailed analyses of relations between concentrations and use focused on four herbicides mainly used for weed control in corn (Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and alachlor) at a subset of 11 sites on the main rivers and selected large tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi and Missouri River basins.

 

Concentrations of many other pesticides that were less prevalent than the 11 included in the study were below analytical detection limits in most samples and thus could not be analyzed for trends. Glyphosate, an herbicide which has had rapidly increasing use on new genetically modified varieties of soybeans and corn, and which now is the most heavily used herbicide in the nation, was not measured until late in the study and thus had insufficient data for analysis of trends.

 

 


Obama Promises Tribal Leaders Help with Environmental Issues

WASHINGTON, DC (ENS) - Representatives of 400 federally recognized tribal nations from across the United States gathered at the Department of the Interior on November 5 at the invitation of President Barack Obama for a conference the President called a “unique and historic event, the largest and most widely attended gathering of tribal leaders in our history."

 

Obama and several of his Cabinet members met with the tribal leaders in the morning to listen and to assure them that the broken promises and condescending attitudes of the past would not be repeated under his administration. "I promised you we'd host this conference to develop an agenda that works for your communities because I believe Washington can't - and shouldn't - dictate a policy agenda for Indian Country," Obama said. "Tribal nations do better when they make their own decisions. That's why we're here today."

 

In the presence of the tribal leaders, Obama signed a memorandum directing every Cabinet agency to give him a detailed plan within 90 days of  how they will implement an executive order signed by President Bill Clinton nine years ago that established "regular and meaningful  consultation and collaboration" between tribal nations and the federal government.

 

"Over the past nine years, only a few agencies have made an effort to implement that executive order," said Obama, "and it's time for that to change. After all, there are challenges we can only solve by working together, and we face a serious set of issues right now."

 

Obama listed some of most serious issues facing tribal nations, saying, "Some of your reservations face unemployment rates of up to 80 %. Roughly a quarter of all Native Americans live in poverty. More than 14 % of all reservation homes don't have electricity; and 12% don't have access to a safe water supply. In some reservations as many as 20 people live together just to get by."

 

"Without real communication and consultation, we're stuck year after year with policies that don't work on issues specific to you and on broader issues that affect all of us," said Obama. "And you deserve to have a voice in both."

 

In the question and answer session that followed the signing of the memorandum, many tribal leaders brought environmental and land rights issues to the President's attention.

 

Bill Martin, president of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, spoke as a representative of all the native peoples of Alaska. "We ask that you work with us to stop the disastrous erosion caused by global warming," he said. "Many of our villages are ready to slide off into the waters of Alaska, and in some cases, there will be absolutely no hope, we will need to move many villages."

 

"Honorable President Barack Obama - he who cares - it's good to see you today," said Wilfred Cleveland president of the Ho-Chunk Nation, the Bear Clan, from the state of Wisconsin. "Today we, the native nations, have formed governments, and we must continuously fight to maintain our sovereignty and our lands we were once stewards of," said Cleveland. "We must have the same relationship with the federal government as the states. We must not be restricted under the watchdog of the BIA [Bureau of Indian Affairs], but rather be enhanced with a nation-with-nation relationship."

 

"We were not born owners of these lands, but stewards," Cleveland said. "Today we have to purchase our lands back and we have this process of putting our land back into trust ... and that's a long process that is there. Part of this process is giving states, county, and even local governments an opportunity to say whether these lands can go in the trust or not. Now I ask you, is that nation-to-nation relationship?"

John Berrey, chairman of the Quapaw Tribe in Oklahoma, told the President that his tribe has on its lands the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Tar Creek Superfund site. "We have 72 million tons of mining waste on our lands," said Berrey. "I would like to ask you to come visit it and see the devastation caused by this management of tribal resources, and help elevate tribes to the same level of states when we're dealing with the remediation of Superfund sites so we can have the same voice as the state in designing a better future and environment for our people."

 

President Obama said he would "make sure that somebody follows up directly with your tribe on this Superfund site."

 

Caroline Cannon, president for the Native Village of Point Hope in Alaska, said, "I came here with a message from my tribe, that we are impacted with the offshore drilling, the decision that's been made on behalf of our tribe during the Bush administration. And we would like you to overturn that." "I live in the coastal village, and exactly where climate change has a big impact," said Cannon. "We are a whaling community, and we need help.  It's happening so fast that last year, a couple of years ago, there were some incidents that occurred because of the ice condition during the whaling season, so I would like help."

 

We also are around the coast of the Red Dog Mine, and they have decided that they're going to have a discharge pipeline to our ocean, where we highly rely on our food resources," said Cannon.

 

Obama said that with respect to offshore drilling, "Secretary Salazar is in the process of reviewing some of the directives that were issued under the previous administration. And I am confident that as part of that overarching review, that consultation with potentially affected nations will be part of Ken's process."

 

Marcus Dominick Levings, also called Ee-Ba-Da-Gish, White-Headed Eagle, chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes, the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara in western North Dakota, told the President that his people have oil and gas on their lands. "We have an opportunity to be independent from any means of federal programs," he said, asking that a lengthy development process be eliminated "so our elders, who are dying as we speak, can generate opportunities to receive royalties on their minerals."

 

"The whole issue of environmental integrity on tribal lands is something that too often has slipped through the cracks or decisions have been made in the absence of consultation with the tribes. So this is going to be a top priority generally - improving our environmental quality," Obama said.

 

The issue of climate change is something that we are working diligently on and everybody has a huge interest in this, no place more so than Alaska where the effects are already beginning to be felt. Native people whose economies oftentimes may be based on interacting with the natural environment, are already starting to have to make significant changes that have to be addressed.

 

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack and Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke attended the conference.  Obama offered the services of Secretary Salazar and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson to help tribal nations resolve their environmental issues.

 

"Figuring out how we can improve environmental coordination with the tribal nations so that we're matching the energy agenda with an  environmental agenda I think is going to be not only good for native peoples, it's also going to be good for the United States generally. And we have a lot to learn from your nations in order to create the kind of sustainability in our environment that we so desperately need," Obama said.

 


Regional

Weekly Great Lakes Water Levels for Nov. 6, 2009

 Weather Conditions

A few weak disturbances brought light rain showers and chilly temperatures to the Great Lakes basin this week.  A warming trend is expected for the weekend as a high pressure center slides to the east.  Temperatures in the 60s are likely across the region on Saturday and Sunday.  Scattered showers are expected to return to start the workweek.

Lake Level Conditions

All of the Great Lakes remain higher than their levels of a year ago.  Lakes Superior, Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie and Ontario are 3, 12, 8, 6, and 1 inch, respectively, higher than their levels last year at this time.  The water levels of Lakes Superior, Michigan-Huron and St. Clair are expected to decline by 2 inches over the next month.  Lake Erie and Ontario are expected to decline 1 and 2 inches, respectively, over the next 30 days.  Over the next several months, Lake Superior, Lake Michigan-Huron and Lake St. Clair are forecasted to be above their water levels of a year ago. Lakes Erie and Ontario are forecasted to remain near or below last year's levels over the same time period.

Current Outflows/Channel Conditions

In October, the outflow from Lake Superior through the St. Mary's River and the outflow from Lake Michigan-Huron through the St. Clair River were below average. The flow in the

Detroit River was also below average. The Niagara River

carried near average flows during October, while the outflow from Lake Ontario through the St. Lawrence River was above average in October.   

Alerts

Users of the Great Lakes, connecting channels and St. Lawrence River should keep informed of current conditions before undertaking any activities that could be affected by changing water levels. Mariners should utilize navigation charts and refer to current water level readings. 

 

 

Superior

Mich-Huron

St. Clair

Erie

Ontario

Level for Nov 6

601.54

 578.41

 

574.02

571.13

244.59

Datum, in ft

601.1

577.5

572.3

569.2

243.3

Diff in inches

  +5

    +11

 +21

 +23

 +15

Diff last month

 -1

 

     0

-1

 -3

 -4

Diff from last yr

+3

 +12

 +8

 +6

+1


Canada

Canada Gun registry appears doomed

Opponents of a long gun registry in Canada are coming close to abolishing it. Both sides of the gun control debate believe

the Conservatives now have enough Commons votes to give parliamentary approval in principle to a private member's bill to kill the registry for rifles and shotguns.

Indiana

17 state parks to close for deer reductions

Participants, "buddies" already randomly selected 

Select Indiana state parks will be closed temporarily for controlled deer reductions in the coming weeks. Two reduction efforts will take place. The first are Nov. 16 and 17. The second round is Nov. 30 and Dec. 1. The participating parks will close to the general public the evening before each of the two efforts and will re-open the morning after each two-day reduction ends.

               

Indiana DNR biologists evaluate which parks require a reduction each year based on vegetative recovery and previous hunter success at each park.

               

State parks are home to more than 32 state-endangered plants, and the reductions help maintain browsing by deer to a level that helps ecosystems and associated vegetation recover throughout the state parks. Although the parks have had much success since the first reduction in 1993, a high no-show rate of those drawn and over selective hunting remain a challenge for the program.

 

State parks participating with a reduction using firearms include Chain O’Lakes, Charlestown, Harmonie, Lincoln, Ouabache, Pokagon, Potato Creek, Prophetstown, Shades, Shakamak, Spring Mill, Tippecanoe River, Turkey Run, Versailles and Whitewater Memorial.

 

State parks using archery for reduction include Fort Harrison and Clifty Falls.  Participation is limited to individuals on applications that were drawn last September. No standby drawings will be conducted, nor will substitutes or additions be permitted. 

               

Participants must show photo ID upon check-in. No information packets were mailed to drawn participants this year but are instead available online at www.IN.gov/dnr/parklake/5655.htm, where applicants can check or review their draw status, permitted buddies, and details about the hunts. Information regarding 2010 state park deer reductions will be available in the 2010-2011 Indiana Hunting and Trapping Guide next summer.


Dispose of deer carcasses properly

With deer firearms season starting Nov. 14, hunters, if they are successful, need to be aware of the proper way to dispose of deer carcasses once the meat has been removed. "A hunter's responsibility, both ethically and legally, doesn't end until the carcass is disposed of properly," said Lt. Mark Farmer, public information officer for the DNR Division of Law Enforcement.

 

Professional meat processors have legal means of disposing of carcasses. Successful hunters who do not use professional processors have a few different options for proper carcass disposal, according to the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH).

 

One is to check to see if a local processor will dispose of the carcass. If so, there will likely be a charge for pickup. The hunter cannot take the carcass into the processing facility.

 

Another option is to contact a renderer to ask about pickup/drop off. BOAH's list of renderer contact information is at http://www.in.gov/boah/2368.htm.

 

Landfills meet BOAH's standard, but hunters should check with the landfill first to see if it accepts carcasses and if it has bagging requirements. Indiana conservation officers will be stepping up enforcement of illegal dumping laws using electronic monitoring equipment.

 

If you wish to report the illegal dumping of deer carcasses or any environmental or fish and wildlife violation, call the Turn in a Poacher or Polluter Hotline at 1-800-TIP-IDNR or register a complaint online at www.tip.IN.gov

 

 


Indiana hunters to take aim at healthy deer population

Indiana’s annual firearms season for white-tailed deer opens Nov. 14. During the 16-day season, which ends Nov. 29, hunters are expected to kill an estimated 86,000 deer. “In 2008, hunters killed 86,454 deer during firearms season. I expect the numbers from 2009 to reflect a similar total,” said Chad Stewart, Indiana DNR deer biologist.

           

This year marks the 75th anniversary of Indiana DNR's Division of Fish and Wildlife white-tailed deer reintroduction project. The opportunity to hunt white-tailed deer in Indiana represents a major success in wildlife restoration.

       

Indiana’s '08 antlered deer harvest (50,845) was a 3% increase over 49,375 harvested in '07. The antlerless harvest of ’08 (78,903) also increased over the 76,052 in '07.

 

Deer hunters harvested 129,748 Indiana deer during the '08 season, over 5,000 more than the 124,427 deer harvested during the '07 season. Although the overall deer harvest for the last three years has averaged around 126,500, Stewart said, “2009 may mark the first year hunters kill more than 130,000 deer in Indiana. It’s only 252 more deer than last season.”       

The combined '08 archery seasons yielded 26,921 deer. Muzzleloader rifle season hunters killed 15,154 deer. Firearms hunters killed 86,454 deer, 66.6 % of the entire '08 harvest.               

 

Hunters killed 17,418 deer on opening day of firearms season in ’08 and 13,746 on the second day. Opening weekend accounted for 36 percent of the total deer killed during firearms season. According to DNR wildlife chief, Wayne Bivans, this year’s opening weekend should be just as successful. “Indiana’s deer haven’t experienced any serious threats this year. The weather has been fine, and we haven’t seen much disease. The overall deer population is healthy and thriving. I believe there is every reason to expect hunters to experience a successful opening weekend,” Bivans said.

 

The number of deer harvested in individual counties last year ranged from a low of 130 deer in Tipton County to 3,672 deer in Steuben County. Harvest exceeded 1,000 deer in 61 counties; exceeded 2,000 deer in 16 of those counties; and exceeded 3,000 deer in four of those counties.

 

 


Michigan

MI - State, Tribes Reach Resolution on Mullett Lake Walleye Fishery
The Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the five Tribes in the 1836 Treaty-ceded territory of Michigan have reached a collaborative resolution to address the walleye fishery on Mullett Lake in Cheboygan County that will allow for harvest of walleyes to continue on the lake in 2010 by both Tribal subsistence fishers and state-licensed recreational anglers.

The resolution includes the state and Tribes working together to develop a multi-faceted approach to monitoring and enhancing the walleye population over the next five years, through the 2014 fishing season.

The plan includes fishery management changes by the state and collaborative assessment monitoring by both the state and the Tribes that encompasses continued creel surveys for the 2010 fishing season, a joint assessment of the entire chain of lakes, and in the longer term the potential to develop a joint fish stocking effort.

As a result of the resolution, Kelley Smith, Michigan’s Fish chief, announced at the Michigan Natural Resources Commission meeting last week that the Tribes have agreed to withdraw their request to invoke allocation-based procedures on the lake for 2010. The resolution creates flexibility for the State to set appropriate harvest regulations for walleye on the lake in 2010.  Smith said,  however, the state still needs to work with the public between now and early December to determine whether a reduced bag limit, a higher minimum size limit, a shortened season or some combination of those will be most appropriate for walleye taken by state-licensed anglers on Mullett Lake.     

"Given the low population estimate, we realized that something would need to be done related to fishing regulations on Mullett Lake for harvest of walleyes by state-licensed anglers," Smith said.  "We planned to undertake a review with the public next summer, but we are moving more quickly given the overall concern for the health of the walleye population in Mullett Lake."

During discussions with the tribes, Smith said there was

 

concern on both sides about the fishery survey conducted on Mullett Lake in 2009. "There is overall uncertainty about the population estimate of adult walleyes in Mullett Lake," Smith said. "The range is 2,001 to 3,577 adult walleyes. There is also some uncertainty on both sides about the interaction between the lakes in this particular chain of lakes - Mullett, Burt, Crooked and Pickerel."
 

Douglas W. Craven, Natural Resource Department Director for the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, agrees. "Mullett is part of a large complex system. The Tribes felt that there were some unknowns out there and we wanted to make sure that those concerns would be adequately addressed. The Tribes are committed to working with MDNR to address those uncertainties."

Jeff Parker, chairman of the Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority, agreed that the tribes were equally concerned about the lower walleye population estimate on Mullet Lake, but also, how misconceptions were being portrayed in certain circles about how the detriment actually occurred.

 

Allocation was a suggested option because it provided greater control over the total amount of walleye that could be preserved in Mullet, said Parker.  Parker concluded that he is optimistic that the collaborative approach agreed to between the state and Tribes takes everyone's concerns and needs into consideration.

Fisheries regulations will be developed, Smith said, that use the upper range of the population estimate to calculate safe harvest levels. The state and Tribes have agreed to set a safe harvest level of 40 % on Mullett Lake, and the DNR Fisheries Division will recommend a modification to the Mullett Lake fisheries order to change the state regulations to meet the new harvest level. The new regulation will be taken up at the December NRC meeting in Lansing.

"Our overall concern has always been the fishery. We feel that this resolution between the state and Tribes was a good faith scientifically based collaborative effort and that it will ensure the protection of the Mullet Lake fishery while providing a harvest opportunity for the state and Tribes," Craven said.


DNR Officers Seize Illegal Gill Net

Had 1,100 Pounds of Fish in Big Bay De Noc
Three Upper Peninsula men were implicated in an illegal gill netting operation this week on the waters of Big Bay De Noc in Delta County.  Conservation officers from the DNR made contact with three men illegally harvesting fish using a gill net in the early hours of Monday, Nov. 2.

Officers seized 1,100 pounds fish which consisted of primarily whitefish, with a very small amount of burbot and walleye. The wholesale value of the whitefish was approximately $860. In addition, a 14-foot boat, motor and trailer were confiscated, along with 1,200 feet of gill net and other gear used in the operation.

A misdemeanor charge will be sought through the Delta County Prosecutor’s Office for fishing with an illegal device, along with a felony resisting and obstructing an officer charge for one of the men who fled the scene on foot.

A second individual will be arraigned in the Delta County court
later this month on misdemeanor charges of fishing with an illegal device.  The third man will be charged in the Sault Ste. Marie Band of Chippewa Indians Tribal Court for subsistence fishing without a license.
 

Condemnation proceedings will be initiated by the officers for all of the gear seized. For the fishing violations, the men could face up to 90 days in jail and receive up to a $1,000 fine. In addition, the cost of restitution for the fish could range into the thousands of dollars. The penalties for resisting and obstructing an officer are up to two years in prison and up to a $1,000 fine.

Anyone can report a wildlife or fish violation to the DNR by calling the Report All Poaching Line at 800-292-7800. Information can be left anonymously, and cash rewards are sometimes given to persons who leave
information that leads to arrests.


Ohio

Ohio set for trout stocking at Punderson Lake

They’re about 16 - 24" long and weigh 2 - 10 lbs

Several hundred surplus "broodstock" rainbow and golden-strain rainbow trout will be stocked in Punderson Lake in Geauga County just before the Thanksgiving holiday on Nov. 24.

 

According to Phil Hillman, northeast Ohio's fish management supervisor for Division of Wildlife, "anglers are very fortunate because these trout are so large making them a lot of fun to catch and an exceptional size to take home. These fish are excess breeders from the London State Fish Hatchery."

 

The trout range from about 16 - 24" long and weigh two to ten lbs. They are expected to arrive from the hatchery early in the afternoon. Anglers should be aware that the stocking will only take place at the campground. Temperature and algae problems have been a problem at the boat ramp. Low oxygen levels near the marina are also a possibility when the water is stagnant. Anglers are encouraged to bring hip or chest waders to increase fishing opportunity. For information on how

to fish for trout and what baits:  www.wildohio.com.

 

Hillman explains that rainbow trout typically do not reproduce naturally in Ohio. "Rainbow trout are a cold water species that in nature spawn in moving water over gravel or cobble substrate. In Ohio, there are few streams that support natural reproduction and no lakes, so the Division of Wildlife raises and stocks trout in many Ohio waters. In most lakes trout that are stocked usually don't survive the winter (if stocked in the fall) or the summer (for spring-stocked trout). Punderson Lake is an exception, however. Trout that have not been captured by anglers within the normal two to three-week period in this lake have been known to survive throughout the year, which is quite unusual."

 

Fishing at Punderson Lake is open to people of all ages. The daily bag limit is five trout per angler with no size limits. No snagging is allowed; snagged fish must be released immediately.  Please be aware that Punderson Lake allows electric motors only for boating anglers.


Wisconsin

Milwaukee Man Ordered to pay Forfeitures and remove Sunken Barge from River

MILWAUKEE – Franklin businessman Basil E. Ryan, Jr., has been ordered to pay $37,691.25 for violating Wisconsin's water regulation laws since a barge in his possession and control sank in the Menomonee River in July 2006.  In addition, Ryan must pay to remove the barge from the river.

 

The State moved for summary judgment as to Ryan's liability, and the Court found Ryan personally liable for maintaining an

obstruction in the Menomonee River contrary to state law.  The Court held a trial to determine forfeitures and injunctive relief on October 5-7, 2009.  At the conclusion of the trial, Milwaukee

County Circuit Court Judge Thomas R. Cooper ruled that Ryan must pay $37,691.25 in forfeitures and statutory assessments.  Judge Cooper found that the barge is a hazard to navigation in the river, and ordered that Ryan must set aside an additional $100,000 in an escrow account to pay to remove the barge, and ordered that bids be obtained for removing the barge promptly.


Ontario

Road Checks Show Majority of Anglers and Hunters Obeying Regulations

Ministry of Natural Resources conservation officers, including the canine unit, conducted an eight-hour joint enforcement road check on October 16 with Ministry of Transportation and Ontario Provincial Police officers.

 

Officers checked 1,518 residents, most from southern Ontario, travelling on Highway 11-17 in the Nipigon District, for compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act and the Ontario Fisheries Regulations, as well as federal fish and game regulations. Officers paid special attention to big game hunting activities.

 

Conservation officers laid 20 charges and issued 60 warnings for a variety of fish and wildlife-related offences, including: 

►Failing to properly attach the game seal to a harvested

 moose

►Unlawfully transferring a licence, and

►Failing to affix the validation tag on the recipient's game seal

 

Officers took the opportunity to educate the public about resource use and conservation issues.  The ministry reminds the public that conservation officers conduct routine checks to ensure that anglers and hunters are obeying a variety of resource laws.

 

For further information on fishing regulations, please consult the 2008-2009 Recreational Fishing Regulations Summary; for information on hunting regulations, consult the 2009 Hunting Regulations Summary. Both are available at ServiceOntario or Government Information Centres, licence issuers and at www.ontario.ca/hunting.


 

 

The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the GLSFC, its officers or staff. 

Reproduction of any material by paid-up members of the GLSFC is encouraged but appropriate credit must be given. 

Reproduction by others without written permission is prohibited.

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